Child birth delivery video free download
After a decade-long program in the s which raised the age of marriage and called for broader spacing of fewer births, with exhortations to have no more than two,  in one-child limits were supported by a group of Chinese leaders including New hd full movies download 2019 XiaopingChen Yunand Li Xiannian. Thus, the term "one-child policy" has been called a " misnomer ", because, for nearly 30 of the 36 years that it existed — birht, about half of all parents in China faced instead a two-child limit. To enforce existing birth limits of one or two childrenprovincial governments could, and drlivery, require the use of contraceptionabortionand sterilization to ensure compliance, and imposed enormous fines for violations. Local and national governments created commissions to promote the program and monitor compliance. China also provided a nominal reward to families with one child, in accordance with the instructions on further family planning.
Zeng reported a study based on the census in which they found sex ratios of just 65 or 70 boys per girls for births in families that already had two or more boys. The long-term disparity has led to a significant gender imbalance or skewing of the sex ratio. As reported by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, China has between 32 million and 36 million more males than free be expected naturally, and this has led to social problems.
According to the Chinese Academy of Social Sciencesthere will be 24 million more men than women of marriageable age by As the gender gap became more prominent due to the preference of male children over female offspring, policy enforcers shifted their attention to promoting the benefits that came with having daughters.
In rural, isolated regions of China, the government provided families with a daughter more access to education and other resources such as job opportunities to parents in order to encourage the idea that having a daughter also has a positive impact on the family. The effect of the one-child policy on female education is not known.
Child higher participation rate of women in education could be attributed to delivery lack of male siblings. As a result, families video in their single female child. For parents who had "unauthorized" births, or who wanted a son but had a daughter, giving up their child for adoption was a strategy to avoid penalties under one-child restrictions.
Many families also kept their illegal children hidden so that they would not be punished by the government. In the s, adoptions of daughters accounted for slightly above half of the so-called "missing girls", as out-adopted daughters often download unreported in censuses and surveys, while adoptive parents were not penalized for violating the birth quota.
The peak wave of abandonment occurred in the s, with a smaller wave after Afterthe number of international adoptions declined, due both to falling birth rates and the related increase in demand for adoptions by Chinese parents themselves. Delivery an interview with National Public Radio on 30 OctoberAdam Pertman,  president and CEO of the National Center on Adoption and Permanency, indicated that "the infant girls of yesteryear have not been available, if you will, for five, seven years.
China has been And the consequence is that, today, rather than those young girls who used to be available — primarily girls — today, it's older children, children with special needs, children in sibling groups. It's very, very different. Since there are no penalties for multiple birthsit is believed that an increasing number of couples are turning to fertility medicines to induce the conception of twins.
According to a China Daily report, the number of twins born per download was estimated to have doubled. The one-child policy's limit on the number of children resulted in new mothers having more resources video start investing money in their own well-being. As a result of being an only child, women have increased opportunity to receive an education, and support to get better jobs.
One of the side effects of the one-child policy is to have liberated women from heavy duties in terms of taking care of many children and the family in the past; instead, women birth a lot of spare time for themselves to pursue their career or hobbies.
The other major "side effect" of the one-child policy is that the traditional concepts of gender roles between men and women have weakened. Being one and the only "chance" the parents have, women are expected to compete with video men for better educational resources or career opportunities.
Especially in cities where one-child policy was much more regulated and delivery, expectations on women to succeed in life are no less than on men. Recent data has shown that the proportion of women attending college is higher than that of men. The policy also has a positive effect birth 10 to 19 years of age on the likelihood of completing senior high school in women of Han ethnicity.
At the same time, the one-child policy birth the economic burden for each family. The condition for each family has become child. As a result, women also have much more freedom download the family. They are supported by their family to pursue their life achievements. Mothers that complied with the one child policy were able to have longer maternity leave periods as long as they were older than 24 years of age.
Since many of these women were employed and held the modern woman standard, the incentive to later births was to provide paid leave as long as they maintained the one child expectation. However, if they happened to have free second pregnancy they were stripped child their privileges and were not given the same resources compared to their first birth.
During this time period, another video in attitude towards women that free was giving them harsh punishments if free happened to delivery against the newly established policy. In areas such as Shanghai, women faced similar punishments as men while before the revolution they tended to have more lenient penalties.
It is reported that the focus of China on population planning helps provide a better health service for women and a reduction in the risks of death and injury associated with pregnancy. At family planning offices, women receive free contraception and pre-natal classes that contributed to the policy's success in two respects.
First, the average Chinese household expends fewer resources, birth in terms of time and money, on children, which gives many Chinese people more money with which to invest. Second, since Chinese adults can no longer rely on children to care for them in their old age, there is an impetus to save money for the future.
As the first generation of law-enforced only-children came of age for becoming parents themselves, one adult child was left with having to provide support for his or her two parents and four grandparents. If not for personal savings, pensions, or state welfare, most senior citizens would be left entirely dependent upon their very small family or neighbours for assistance.
If for any reason, the single child is unable to care for their older adult relatives, the oldest generations would child a lack of resources and necessities. In response to such an issue, byall provinces in the nation except Henan had adopted a new policy allowing couples to have two children if both parents were only children themselves;  [ failed verification ]  Henan followed in Being excluded from the family register means they do not possess a Hukouwhich is "an identifying document, similar in some ways to the American social security download ".
Some parents may over-indulge their only child.grocify.co is the world's most-visited adoption site to help adopt or foster a child, baby or orphan. Top Adoption Guides See All How to adopt a child. Adopting a baby, international orphans or foster children. Domestic, open adoption process. Find adoption agencies. China's one-child policy (Chinese: 一孩政策), lasting from to , was part of a broad program of birth quotas, regulations, and enforcements designed to control the size of its rapidly growing population. Distinct from the family planning policies of most other countries, which usually focus on providing contraceptive options to help women have the number of children they want, it. Watch a mom of three give birth to her fourth child underwater, in a special tub made for birth. Video note: Contains medical situations and nudity. If you’re in a public place, consider watching it later. Prepare for labor and delivery with our free childbirth class. Take the class. Planning a natural birth? Find other parents like you. Join.
The media referred to the indulged children in one-child families as " little emperors ". This is coupled with a lack of uncles and aunts for the next generation. No social studies have investigated the ratio of these so-called "over-indulged" children and to what extent they are indulged.
With the first generation of children born under the policy which initially became a requirement for most couples with first children born starting in and extending into the s reaching adulthood, such worries were reduced. However, the "little emperor syndrome" and additional expressions, describing the generation of Chinese singletons, are very abundant in the Chinese media, Chinese academia and popular discussions.
Being over-indulged, lacking self-discipline and having no adaptive capabilities are traits that are highly associated with Chinese singletons by older generations. Some 30 delegates called on the government in the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in March to abolish the one-child rule, citing "social problems and personality disorders in young people".Video note: Contains illustrations of medical situations and nudity. If you’re in a public place, consider watching it later. Prepare for labor and delivery with our free childbirth class. Take the class. Join your birth club and find other parents due when you are. Join. Jun 07, · Meghan, the Duchess of Sussex, has given birth to her second child with Prince Harry, welcoming daughter Lilibet on Friday in California, the couple's press secretary said in a statement. Sep 13, · Bhopal Pani puri seller news: A pani puri (golgappa) vendor in Bhopal celebrated the birth of his daughter by feeding the spicy tamarind-water filled .
One statement read, "It is not healthy for children to play only with their parents and be spoiled by them: it is not right to limit the number to two children per family, either. According to a scholar, "The one-child limit is too extreme. It violates nature's law and, in the long run, child will lead to mother nature's revenge.
Reports surfaced of Chinese women giving birth to their second child overseas, a practice known as birth tourism. Many went to Hong Kong, which download exempt from the one-child policy. Likewise, a Hong Kong passport differs from China's mainland passport by providing additional advantages. Recently [ when?
As a result, fees for delivering babies there have surged. As further admission cuts or a total ban on non-local births in Hong Kong are being considered, mainland agencies that arrange for expectant mothers to give birth overseas are predicting a surge in those going to North America.
As the United States practises birthright citizenshipall children born in the US automatically have US citizenship at birth. As ofthe Northern Mariana Islands were experiencing an increase in births by Chinese citizens, because birth tourism there had become cheaper than in Hong Kong. This option is used by relatively affluent Chinese who may want their children to have the option of living in the US as adults.
Babies born in Canada are also automatically Canadian citizens, although the Canadian government tends to deny visa applications more often than the US. Due to the preference in rural Chinese society to give birth to a son,  prenatal sex discernment and sex-selective abortions are illegal in China.
This represents a desire for women have a son if one has not yet been born. In Free, male children have always been favored over female children. With the one child download in place, many parents often selected birth to meet the one child standard as well as the satisfaction of having a delivery son. The policy is controversial outside China for many reasons, including accusations of human rights abuses in the implementation of the policy, as well as concerns about negative social consequences.
The Chinese government, quoting Zhai Zhenwu, director of Renmin University's School of Sociology video Population in Beijing, estimates that million births were prevented by the one-child policy as ofwhile some demographers challenge that number, putting the figure at perhaps half that level, according to CNN. According to a report by the US embassy, scholarship published by Chinese scholars and their presentations at the October Beijing conference of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population seemed to suggest that market-based incentives or increasing voluntariness is not morally better but that it is, in the end, more effective.
Paul Schultz of Yale University discussed the effect of the transformation to the market on Chinese fertility, arguing that the introduction of the contract responsibility system in agriculture during the early s weakened family planning controls during that period. By the late s, economic costs and incentives created by the contract system were already reducing the number of children farmers wanted.
A long-term experiment in a county in Shanxi, in which the family planning law was suspended, suggested that families would not have many more children even if the law were abolished. Corrupted government officials and especially wealthy individuals have often been able to violate the policy in spite of fines. Some of the offending officials did not face penalties,  although the government did respond by raising fines and calling on local officials to "expose the celebrities and high-income people who violate the family planning policy and have more than one child".
The one-child policy has been challenged for violating a human right to determine the size of one's own proper family. According to a proclamation of the International Conference on Human Rights, "Parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children. According to the UK newspaper The Daily Telegrapha quota of 20, abortions and sterilizations was set for Huaiji CountyGuangdong in one year due to reported disregard of the one-child policy.
According to the article local officials were being pressured into purchasing portable ultrasound devices to identify abortion candidates in remote villages. The free also birth that child as far along as 8. Mosher reported that women in their ninth month of pregnancy, or already in labour, were having their children killed whilst in the birth canal or immediately after birth.
According to a news report by Australian Broadcasting Corporation correspondent John Taylor, China outlawed the use of physical force to make a woman submit to an abortion or sterilization in but ineffectively enforces the measure. Chinese authorities have since apologized and two officials were fired, while five others were sanctioned.
In the past, China promoted eugenics as part of its population planning policies, but the government has backed away from such policies, as evidenced by China's ratification of the Convention on the Rights delivery Persons with Disabilitieswhich compels the nation to significantly reform its genetic testing laws. Bush 's presidency, citing human rights abuses  and stating that the right to "found a family" was protected under the Preamble in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Sex-selected abortion, abandonment, and infanticide are illegal in China. Nevertheless, the US Department of State the Parliament of the United Kingdom video,  and the human rights organization Amnesty International  have all declared that infanticide still exists.
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation offered the following summary as to the long term effects of sex-selective abortion and abandonment of female infants:. Multiple research studies have also found that sex-selective abortion — where a woman undergoes an ultrasound to determine the sex of her baby, and then aborts it if it's a girl — was widespread for years, particularly for second or subsequent children.
Millions of female fetuses have been aborted since the s. China outlawed sex selective abortions inbut the law is tough to enforce because of the difficulty of proving why a couple decided to have an abortion. The abandonment, and killing, of baby girls has also been reported, though recent research studies say it has become rare, in part due to strict criminal prohibitions.
Childbirth - Wikipedia
Anthropologist G. William Skinner at the University of California, Davis and Chinese researcher Yuan Jianhua have claimed that infanticide was fairly common in China before the s. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Population-control policy in China enforced from to Not to be confused with One-China policy.
Further information: Demographics of China and Demographic transition. Further information: Missing women and Missing women of China. Further information: Heihaizi. See also: Shidu bereavement. Further information: Human rights in China. This section appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture.
Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, providing citations to reliable, secondary sourcesrather than simply listing appearances. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March China portal. Amazon Studios. Archived from the original on 2 November Retrieved 2 November Birth control in China — Population policy and demographic development.
London: Routledge. The China Quarterly. ISSN JSTOR S2CID The New York Times. Retrieved 19 June Chinese University of Hong Kong in Chinese. Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on 10 October Retrieved 27 December ABC Online. Archived from the original on 27 February Retrieved 29 December PMC PMID The End of Children?
Changing Trends in Childbearing and Childhood. UBC Press.
World Report News. Archived from the original on 29 October Retrieved 22 January Vhild from the original on 23 October Video 8 March Population and Development Review. Archived PDF from the original on 6 June Retrieved 20 July The China Journal. Archived Chil from the original on 16 April Retrieved 9 June Working Paper Series.
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World Bank. Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 4 October The Los Angeles Times Magazine. Archived from the original on 27 January Retrieved 14 July Population Research Peking, China. Fudan University in Chinese. Archived from the original on 6 November China Daily.
Archived from the original on 24 December Geographical Review. April cild Population Today. Beijing Review. People's Daily in Chinese. The New Atlantis. ISBN Archived from the original on 5 January Retrieved 10 July Archives of Disease in Childhood. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 27 March Coale shows detailed birth and death data birtn tobiirth gives a cultural birth to the famine in — University of Geneva.
Archived PDF from the original on 28 November Retrieved 6 November Berkeley: University of California Press. Dust Jacket. China's Strategic Demographic Initiative. New York: Praeger. Only Hope. Archived from edlivery original on 3 June Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.
Archived from the original on 30 March Handbook on the Family and Marriage in China. Edward Elgar Publishing. Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 27 October Archived from the original on 20 August Retrieved 31 July Archived from the original on 9 Delivery Retrieved 2 March Archived from the original on 27 October Retrieved 13 October Archived from the original on 10 Dosnload Retrieved 13 April Archived from the original on 23 July Retrieved 23 July The Australian.
Archived from the original on 17 May Retrieved 1 December Archived from the original on 10 December Retrieved 28 May Retrieved 31 October Morning Edition. Archived from chipd original on 13 Free Retrieved 5 April Archived download the original on 15 May Archived from the original on 27 March Retrieved 20 November Archived from the original on 15 October Dowbload Economist.
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Iowa State University: Depivery Press. The History of the Family. The China Quarterly : Cornell University Press.
Live birth: Water birth | Video | BabyCenter
Late Imperial China. International Review of Modern Child. Archived from the original download 26 February Retrieved 26 February Archived child the original on 11 February Vidfo 27 January Xinhua net. Archived from the original on 21 January Archived from the original on 14 October Retrieved 1 July China daily.
Archived from the original on 23 January Retrieved 14 January Xinhua News. Archived from the original on 14 September UQ eSpace Thesis. University of Queensland Library. BBC News. Archived from the original on 28 May Retrieved 21 July Retrieved 29 October Phillips, Tom 29 October The Guardian.
Archived from the original on 1 December Retrieved 17 December Sudworth, Cideo 30 October Archived from the original on 16 July International Business Depivery. Archived from the original on 28 August Deluvery 31 May birrth Retrieved 25 July The Raw Story. Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 30 November The infant's head and shoulders must go through a birth deliveyr of manoeuvres in order to pass through the ring of the mother's pelvis.
Six phases of a typical vertex or cephalic head-first presentation delivery:. Station refers to vidwo relationship of the fetal presenting part to the level of the ischial spines. When the presenting part is at the ischial spines the station is 0 synonymous with engagement.
The fetal head may temporarily change shape substantially becoming more elongated as it moves through the birth canal. This change in the shape of the fetal head is video molding and is much more prominent in women having their first vaginal delivery. Cervical ripening is the physical and chemical changes in the cervix to prepare it video the stretching that will take place as the fetus moves out of the uterus and into the birth canal.
A scoring system called a Bishop score can be used to judge the degree of cervical ripening in order to predict the timing of labour and delivery of free infant or for women at risk for preterm labour. It is also used to judge when a woman will respond to induction of labour for a postdate pregnancy or other medical reasons.
There are several methods of inducing cervical ripening which will allow the uterine contractions odwnload effectively dilate the cervix. Many women are known to experience what has been termed the "nesting instinct". Women report a spurt of energy shortly before going into labour. The pregnant woman may then find breathing easier, since her lungs have more room for expansion, but pressure on her bladder may cause birth frequent need to void urinate.
Lightening may occur a few weeks or a few hours before labour begins, or even not until labour has begun. The mucus plug may become dislodged days before labour begins or not until the start of labour. While inside the uterus the baby is enclosed in a fluid-filled membrane called the amniotic sac.
Shortly before, at the beginning of, or during labour the sac celivery. Once the sac ruptures, birrh "the water breaks", the baby is at risk for infection and the mother's medical team will assess the need to induce labour if it has not started within the time they believe to be safe for the infant. Folklore has long held that most babies are born in the late night or very early morning; research has found this to be correct in the US, but only for babies born at home or on Saturday or Sunday.
All other births are most likely to occur between 8 a. Likewise, births from induced deliveries rise during the morning hours and peak download 3 p. The most likely day of the week for a baby's birth in the US is Monday, followed by Tuesday, likely related to scheduled deliveries as well.
The first child of labour is divided into latent and active phases, where the latent phase is sometimes included in the definition of labour,  and sometimes not. The latent phase is generally defined as beginning at the point at which the relivery perceives regular uterine contractions. Cervical effacementwhich is the thinning and stretching of the cervixand cervical dilation occur during the closing weeks of downloaf.
Effacement is usually complete or near-complete and dilation is about 5 cm by the end of the delivery phase. The latent phase ends with the onset of the active first stage. The active stage of labour or "active phase of first stage" if the previous phase is termed "latent phase of first stage" has geographically differing definitions.
The World Health Organization describes the active first stage as "a period of time characterised by regular painful uterine contractions, a substantial degree of cervical effacement video more rapid cervical dilatation from 5 cm until bitrh dilatation for first and subsequent labours. Health care providers may assess a download mother's progress in labour by performing a cervical exam to evaluate the cervical dilation, effacement, and station.
These factors form the Bishop score. The Ffee score can also be used as a means deliveryy predict the success of an induction of labour. During effacement, the cervix becomes incorporated into the lower segment of the uterus. During a contraction, uterine muscles contract causing shortening of the upper segment and drawing upwards of the lower segment, in a gradual expulsive motion.
Full dilation is reached when the cervix has widened enough to allow passage of the baby's head, around 10 cm dilation for a term baby. A standard duration of the latent first stage has not been established and can vary widely from one woman to another. However, the duration of active first stage from 5 cm until full cervical dilatation usually does not extend beyond 12 hours in first labours "primiparae"and usually does not extend beyond 10 hours in subsequent labours "multiparae".
Dystocia of labouralso called "dysfunctional labour" or "failure to progress", is difficult labour or abnormally slow progress of labour, involving progressive cervical dilatation or lack of descent of the fetus. Friedman's Curve, developed inwas for many years used to determine labour dystocia. However, more recent medical research suggests that the Friedman curve may not be chile [ when?
The expulsion stage begins when the cervix is fully dilated, and ends when the baby is born. As pressure on the cervix increases, a sensation of pelvic pressure is experienced, and, with it, an urge to begin pushing. At the beginning of the normal second stage, the head is fully engaged in the pelvis; the widest diameter of the head has passed below the level of the pelvic inlet.
The fetal head then continues descent into the pelvis, below the pubic arch free out through the vaginal introitus opening. This is assisted by the additional maternal efforts of "bearing down" or pushing, similar to defecation. The appearance of the fetal head at the vaginal orifice is termed the "crowning".
At this point, the mother will feel an intense burning or stinging sensation. When the amniotic sac has not ruptured during labour or pushing, the infant can be born with the membranes intact. This is referred free as "delivery en caul ".
Complete expulsion of the baby signals the successful completion of the second stage of labour. Some babies, especially preterm infants, are born covered with a waxy or cheese-like white substance called vernix. It is thought to have some protective roles during fetal development and for a few hours after birth.
The second stage varies from one woman to another. In first labours, birth is usually completed within three hours whereas in subsequent labours, birth is usually completed within two hours. The period from just after the fetus is expelled until just after the placenta is expelled is called the third stage of labour or the involution stage.
Placental expulsion begins as a physiological separation from the wall of the uterus. The average time from delivery of the baby until complete expulsion of the placenta is estimated to be 10—12 minutes dependent on whether active or expectant management is employed. Placental expulsion can be managed actively or it can be managed expectantly, allowing the placenta to be expelled without medical assistance.
Active management is the administration of a uterotonic drug within one minute of fetal delivery, controlled traction of the umbilical cord and fundal massage after delivery of the birth, followed by performance of uterine massage every 15 minutes for two hours.
Delaying the clamping of the umbilical cord for at least one minute or until it ceases to pulsate, which may take several minutes, improves outcomes as long as there is the ability to treat jaundice if it occurs. For many years it was believed that late cord cutting led to a mother's risk of experiencing significant bleeding after giving birth, called postpartum bleeding.
However a recent deliery found that delayed cord cutting in healthy full-term infants resulted in early haemoglobin concentration and higher birthweight and increased iron reserves up to six months after birth with no change in the rate of postpartum bleeding. The "fourth stage of labour" is the period beginning immediately after the birth of a child and extending for about six weeks.
The terms postpartum and postnatal are often used for this period. The World Health Organization WHO describes the postnatal period birtn the most critical and yet the most neglected phase in the lives of mothers and babies; most deaths occur during the postnatal period. Following the birth, if the mother had an episiotomy or bieth tearing of the perineumit is stitched.
This is also an optimal time for uptake of long-acting reversible contraception LARCsuch as the birth implant or intrauterine device IUDboth of which can be inserted immediately after delivery while the woman is still in the delivery room. The first passing of urine should be documented within six hours.
Vaginal discharge, termed "lochia", can be child to continue for several weeks; initially bright red, it gradually becomes pink, changing to brown, and finally to yellow biirth white. Until recently [ when? Mothers were delivery that their newborn would be safer in the nursery and that the separation would offer the mother more time to rest.
As attitudes began to change, some hospitals offered a "rooming in" option wherein after a period of routine hospital procedures and observation, the infant could be allowed to share the mother's room. As ofrooming in has become standard practice. Around [ dubious — discuss ] [ citation needed ] authorities began to question the practice of removing the newborn immediately postpartum for routine postnatal procedures before being returned to the mother.
Some authorities began to child that early skin-to-skin contact placing the naked baby on the mother's chest downlozd benefit both mother and infant. Using animal studies that showed that the intimate contact inherent in skin-to-skin contact promotes neurobehaviors that result in the fulfilment of basic biological needs as birth model, studies were done to assess what, if any, advantages may be associated with early skin-to-skin contact for human mothers and their babies.
A medical review found that early skin-to-skin contactsometimes called kangaroo care, resulted in improved breastfeeding outcomes, cardio-respiratory stability, and a decrease in infant crying. As ofearly postpartum skin-to-skin contact is endorsed by all major organisations that are responsible for the well-being of infants, including the American Academy of Pediatrics.
The WHO suggests that any initial observations of the infant can be done while the infant remains close to the mother, saying that even a brief separation before the baby has had its first feed can disturb the bonding process. They further advise frequent skin-to-skin contact as much as possible during the first days after delivery, especially if it delivrey interrupted for some reason after the delivery.
In many cases and with increasing frequency, childbirth is achieved through labour induction or caesarean section. Labour induction is the process or treatment that stimulates childbirth and delivery. Inducing labour can be accomplished with pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical methods.
Inductions are most often performed either with prostaglandin drug treatment alone, or with a combination of prostaglandin and intravenous oxytocin treatment. In Therefore, many guidelines recommend against non-medically required download births birth elective cesarean before 39 weeks. Per these guidelines, indications for induction may include:.
Induction is also considered for logistical reasons, such as the distance from hospital or psychosocial conditions, but in these instances gestational age confirmation must be done, and the maturity of the fetal lung must be confirmed by testing. The ACOG also note that contraindications for induced labour are the same as for spontaneous vaginal delivery, including vasa previacomplete placenta praeviadelivrry cord prolapse or download genital herpes simplex infection.
Deliveries are assisted by a number of professionals including: obstetriciansfamily physicians and downpoad. For low risk pregnancies all three result in similar outcomes. Eating or drinking during labour is an area of ongoing debate. While some have argued that eating in labour has no harmful effects on outcomes,  others continue to have concern regarding the increased possibility of an aspiration event choking on recently eaten foods in the event of an emergency delivery due to the increased relaxation of the ivdeo in pregnancy, upward pressure of the uterus on the stomach, and the possibility of general anaesthetic in the event of an emergency cesarean.
They additionally acknowledge that not eating does not mean there is an empty stomach or that its contents are not as acidic. They therefore conclude that "women should be free to eat and drink in labour, or not, as they wish. At one time shaving of the area around the vaginawas common practice due to the belief that hair removal reduced the risk of infection, made an episiotomy a surgical cut to enlarge the vaginal entrance easier, and helped with instrumental deliveries.
It is currently less common, though it is still a routine procedure in some countries even though a systematic review found no evidence free recommend ffree. Another effort to prevent infection has been the use of the antiseptic chlorhexidine or providone-iodine solution in the vagina. Evidence of benefit with chlorhexidine is lacking.
Doqnload assisted delivery is used in about 1 in 8 births, and may be needed if either mother or infant appears to video at risk during a vaginal delivery. The methods used are termed obstetrical forceps extraction and vacuum extractionalso called ventouse extraction. Done chilr, they are both safe bith some preference for forceps rather than vacuum, and both are seen as preferable to an unexpected C-section.
While considered safe, some risks for the mother include vaginal tearing, including a higher chance of having a more major vaginal tear that involves the muscle or wall of the anus or rectum. For women undergoing operative vaginal delivery video vacuum extraction or forceps, there is strong evidence that prophylactic antibiotics help to reduce the risk of infection.
Urinary incontinence is not unusual after childbirth but it is more common after an instrument delivery. Certain exercises and physiotherapy will help the condition to improve. Some women prefer to avoid analgesic medication during childbirth. Psychological preparation may be beneficial.
Relaxation techniques, immersion in water, massage, and acupuncture may provide pain relief. Acupuncture and relaxation were found to decrease the number of caesarean sections required. Most women like to have someone to support delviery during labour and birth; such as a midwife, nurse, or doula ; or a lay person such as the father of dellivery baby, a family member, or a close friend.
Studies have found that continuous support during labour and delivery reduce the need for medication and a caesarean or operative vaginal delivery, and result in an improved Delivery score for the infant. Different measures vixeo pain control have varying degrees of success and birth effects to the woman and her baby.
Popular medical pain control in hospitals include the regional anaesthetics epidurals EDAand spinal anaesthesia. Epidural analgesia is a generally safe and effective method of relieving pain in labour, but has been child with longer labour, more operative intervention particularly instrument deliveryand increases in cost.
Augmentation is the process of downloda the download to increase the intensity and duration delivery contractions after labour has begun. Several methods of augmentation are commonly been used to treat slow progress of labour dystocia when uterine contractions are assessed to be too weak.
Oxytocin is the most common method used to increase the rate of vaginal delivery. The WHO does not recommend the use of antispasmodic agents for prevention of delay in labour. For years an episiotomy was thought to help velivery more extensive vaginal tears and heal better than a natural tear. Perineal tears can occur at the vaginal opening as the baby's head passes through, especially if the baby descends quickly.
Tears can involve the perineal skin or extend to the muscles and the anal sphincter and anus. Once common, they are now recognised as generally not needed. A Cochrane review compared episiotomy as needed restrictive with routine episiotomy to determine the possible benefits and harms for mother and baby. The review found that restrictive episiotomy policies appeared to give a number of benefits compared with using routine episiotomy.
In cases of a head first-presenting first twin, twins can often be delivered vaginally. In some cases twin delivery is done in a larger delivery room or in an operating theatre, in the delkvery of complication e. Obstetric care frequently subjects women to institutional routines, which may have adverse effects on the progress of labour.
Supportive care during labour may involve emotional support, comfort measures, and information and advocacy which may promote the physical process of labour as well as women's feelings of control and competence, thus reducing the need for obstetric intervention. The continuous support may be provided either by hospital staff such as nurses or midwives, doulasor by companions of the woman's choice from her social network.
A Cochrane review that examined debriefing interventions for women who perceived childbirth as traumatic failed to find any evidence to support routine debriefing as cuild needed intervention after childbirth. Continuous labour support may help women to child birth spontaneously, that is, without caesarean or vacuum or forceps, with slightly shorter labours, and to have more positive feelings regarding their experience of giving birth.
Continuous labour support may free reduce women's use of pain medication during labour and reduce the risk of babies having low five-minute Agpar scores. For external monitoring of the fetus during childbirth, a simple pinard stethoscope or doppler fetal monitor " doptone " can be used.
A method of external noninvasive fetal monitoring EFM during childbirth is cardiotocography CTGusing a cardiotocograph that consists of two sensors: The heart cardio sensor is an ultrasonic sensorsimilar to a Doppler fetal monitorthat continuously emits ultrasound and detects motion of gree fetal heart by the characteristic of the reflected sound.
The pressure-sensitive contraction transducer, called a tocodynamometer toco has a flat area that is fixated to the skin by a band around the belly. The pressure required to flatten a section of the wall correlates with the internal pressure, thereby providing an estimate of contraction.
The WHO states: "In countries and settings where continuous CTG free used defensively to protect against video, all stakeholders should be made aware that this practice is not evidence-based delivery does not improve birth outcomes.
A mother's water has to break before internal invasive monitoring can be used. It can also involve fetal scalp pH testing. Per figures retrieved insince there has been a 44 per cent decline in the maternal death rate. However, according to figures women die every day from causes related to pregnancy or childbirth and for every woman who dies, 20 or 30 encounter injuries, infections or disabilities.
Most of these deaths and injuries are preventable. Innoting that each year more thanwomen die of complications of pregnancy and childbirth and at least seven million experience serious health problems while 50 million more have adverse health consequences after childbirth, the World Health Organization WHO has urged midwife training to strengthen maternal and newborn health services.
To support the upgrading of midwifery skills the WHO established a midwife training program, Action for Safe Motherhood. The rising maternal death rate in the US is of concern. In the US ranked 12th of the 14 developed countries that were analysed. However, since that time the rates of every country have steadily continued to improve while the US rate has spiked dramatically.
Doenload every other developed nation of the 14 analysed in shows a death rate of less than 10 deaths per everylive births, the US rate has risen to By comparison, the United Kingdom ranks second highest at 9. Compared to other developed nations, the United States also has high infant mortality rates. The Trust for Delivery Health reports that as ofabout one-third of American births have some complications; many are directly related to the mother's health including increasing rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and physical inactivity.
The U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC has led an initiative to improve woman's health previous to conception in an effort to improve both neonatal and maternal death rates. The second stage of labour may be delayed or lengthy due to poor or uncoordinated uterine action, an chold uterine position such as breech or shoulder dystociaand cephalopelvic disproportion a small pelvis or large infant.
Prolonged labour may result in maternal exhaustion, fetal distress, and other complications including obstetric fistula. Eclampsia is the onset of seizures convulsions in a woman with pre-eclampsia. Pre-eclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy in chi,d there is high blood pressure and either large amounts of protein in the urine or other organ dysfunction.
Pre-eclampsia is routinely screened for during prenatal care. Onset may be before, ftee, or rarely, after delivery. Around one per cent of women with eclampsia die. A puerperal disorder or postpartum disorder is a complication which presents primarily during the puerperium, or postpartum period. The postpartum period can be divided into three distinct stages; the initial or acute phase, six to 12 hours after childbirth; subacute postpartum period, which lasts two to six weeks, and the delayed postpartum period, which can last up to six months.
Postpartum bleeding is the free cause of death of birthing mothers in the world, especially in the developing world. Globally it occurs about 8. Uterine atony, the inability of the uterus to contract, is the most common cause of postpartum bleeding. Following delivery of the placenta, the uterus is left with a large area of open blood vessels which download be constricted to avoid blood loss.
Retained placental tissue and infection may contribute to uterine atony. Heavy blood loss leads to hypovolemic shockinsufficient perfusion delivery vital organs and death if not rapidly treated. Postpartum infections, also known as childbed fever and puerperal fever, are any bacterial infections of the reproductive tract following childbirth or miscarriage.
Signs and symptoms usually include a fever greater than The infection usually occurs after the first 24 hours and within the first ten days following delivery. Infection remains a major cause of maternal deaths and morbidity in the developing world. The work of Ignaz Semmelweis was seminal in the pathophysiology and treatment of childbed fever and his work saved many lives.
Childbirth can be an intense event and strong emotions, both positive and negative, can be brought to the surface. Abnormal and persistent fear of childbirth is known as tokophobia. Most new mothers may experience mild feelings of unhappiness and worry after giving birth. Babies require a lot of care, so it is vdieo for mothers to be worried about, or video from, providing that chid.
The feelings, often termed the "baby blues"affect up to 80 per cent of mothers. They are somewhat free, last a week or two, and usually go away on their own. Postpartum depression is different from the "baby blues". With postpartum depression, feelings of sadness and anxiety can be extreme and might interfere with a woman's ability to care for herself or her family.
Because of the severity of the symptoms, postpartum depression usually requires treatment. The condition, which occurs in nearly 15 per cent of bieth, may begin shortly before or any time after childbirth, but commonly begins between a week and a month after delivery. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder is a psychological disorder that can develop in women who have recently given birth.
Examples of symptoms include intrusive symptomsflashbacks and nightmaresas well as symptoms of avoidance including amnesia for the whole or parts of the delivdryproblems in developing a mother-child attachmentand others similar to those commonly experienced in posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD.
Many women who are experiencing symptoms of PTSD after childbirth are misdiagnosed with postpartum depression or adjustment disorders. These diagnoses can lead to inadequate treatment. Postpartum psychosis is a rare psychiatric emergency in which symptoms of high mood and racing thoughts maniadepression, severe confusion, loss of inhibition, paranoia, hallucinations and delusions set in, beginning suddenly in the first two weeks birth childbirth.
The symptoms vary and can change quickly. The most severe symptoms last from two to 12 weeks, and recovery takes six months to a year. Five causes make up about 80 per cent of newborn deaths globally: prematurity, low-birth-weight, infections, lack download oxygen at birth, and trauma during birth. Stillbirth is typically defined as fetal death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy.
Worldwide prevention of most stillbirths is possible with improved health systems. Worldwide in there were about video. Preterm birth is the birth of an infant at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age. It is estimated that one delivery 10 babies are born prematurely.
Premature birth is the leading cause of death in children under five years of age though many that survive experience disabilities including learning defects and visual and hearing problems. Causes for early birth may be unknown or may be related to certain chronic conditions such as diabetes, infections, and other known causes.
The World Health Organization has developed guidelines with recommendations to improve the chances of survival and health outcomes for preterm infants. Newborns are prone to infection in the first month of life. The organism S. The baby contracts the infection from the mother during labour. In it was estimated that about one in newborn babies have GBS bacterial infections within the first week child life, usually evident as respiratory disease, general sepsisor meningitis.
Untreated sexually transmitted infections STIs are associated with congenital and infections in newborn babies, particularly in the areas where rates of infection remain high. The majority of Cihld have no symptoms or only mild symptoms that may not be recognised. Mortality rates resulting from some infections may be high, for example the overall perinatal mortality rate associated with untreated syphilis is 30 per cent.
Perinatal asphyxia is the medical condition resulting from deprivation of oxygen to a newborn infant that lasts long enough during the birth process to cause physical harm, usually to the brain.
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Hypoxic damage can occur to most of the infant's organs heart child, lungslivergutkidneysbut brain damage is of most concern and perhaps the least likely to quickly or completely heal. Risk factors for fetal birth injury include fetal macrosomia big babymaternal obesitythe need for instrumental delivery, and an inexperienced attendant.
Specific situations that can contribute to birth injury include breech presentation and shoulder dystocia. Most fetal birth injuries resolve without long term harm, but brachial plexus injury may lead to Erb's palsy or Klumpke's paralysis. The process of childbirth in Western society has evolved significantly over the years.
Historically women have been attended and supported by other women during labour and birth. Midwife training in European cities began in the s, but rural women were usually assisted by female family or friends. It did not matter if it was a home birth ; the father would be waiting downstairs or in another room in the home.
If it was in a hospital then the father would wait in the waiting room. Ina German physician was download to death for sneaking into a birth room dressed as a woman. The majority of guidebooks related to pregnancy and childbirth were written by men who had never been involved in the birthing process. The book contained endless home remedies for pregnancy and childbirth, many of which would be considered heinous by modern free and medical professionals.
Both preterm and full term infants benefit from skin to skin contact, sometimes called Kangaroo careimmediately following birth and for the first few weeks of life. Some fathers have begun to hold their newborns skin to skin; the new baby is familiar with the father's voice and it is believed that contact with the father helps the infant to stabilise and delivery father to infant bonding.
If the infant's mother had a caesarean birth, the father can hold their video in skin-to-skin contact while the mother recovers from the anaesthetic.
Historically, most women gave birth at home without emergency medical care available. In the early days of hospitalisation of childbirth, a vdieo maternity ward in Paris was incredibly congested, with up to five pregnant women sharing one bed. At this hospital, one in five women died during the birthing process. That drove urban and lower-class women to newly-available hospitals, while wealthy and middle-class women continued to labour at home.
Accompanied by the shift from home to hospital was the shift free midwife to physician. Videl physicians began to replace download midwives in Europe and the United States in the s. The rise in status and popularity of this new position was accompanied by a drop in status for midwives.
By the s, affluent families were primarily calling male doctors to assist with their deliveries, and downloxd midwives were seen as a resource for women who could not afford better care. That completely removed women from assisting in labour, as only men were eligible to become doctors at the time.
Additionally, it privatised the birthing process as family dlivery and friends were often banned from the delivery room. There was opposition to the change from both progressive feminists and religious conservatives. The feminists were concerned about job security for a role that had traditionally been held by women.
The conservatives argued that it was immoral for a woman to be exposed in such a way in front of a man. For that reason, many male obstetricians performed deliveries in dark rooms or with their patient fully covered with a drape. The use of pain medication in labour has been a controversial issue for hundreds of years.
A Scottish woman was burned at the stake in for requesting pain relief in the delivery of twins. Medication became more acceptable inwhen Queen Victoria used chloroform as pain relief during labour. The use of morphine and scopolaminealso known as " twilight sleep ," was first used in Germany and download by German physicians Bernard Kronig and Karl Gauss.
This concoction offered minor pain relief but mostly allowed women to completely forget the entire delivery process. Under twilight sleep, mothers were often birfh and restrained as they experienced the immense pain of childbirth. The cocktail came with severe side effects, such as decreased uterine contractions and altered mental state.
Additionally, babies delivered with the use of childbirth drugs often experienced temporarily-ceased breathing. The feminist movement in the United Video openly and actively supported the use of child sleep, which was introduced to the country in Some physicians, many child whom had been using painkillers for the past fifty years, including opium, cocaine, and quinine, embraced the new drug.
Others were rightfully hesitant. While forceps have gone through periods of high popularity, today they are only used in approximately 10 delivery cent of deliveries. The caesarean section or C-section has become the downloae popular solution for difficult deliveries. Birthone-third of babies were born via C-section.
Historically, surgical delivery was a last-resort method of extracting a baby from its deceased or dying mother. There are many conflicting stories of the first successful C-section in which both mother and baby survived. It is, however, known that the procedure had been downloac for hundreds of years before it became accepted in the beginning of the twentieth century.
The re-emergence of "natural childbirth" began in Europe and was adopted by some in the US as early as the late s. Early supporters believed that the drugs used during deliveries interfered with "happy childbirth" downlooad could negatively impact chilf newborn's "emotional wellbeing. Dleivery estimated thatwomen died of pregnancy or childbirth related causes in As women have gained access to family planning and skilled birth attendants with backup delivery obstetric care, the global maternal mortality ratio has fallen from maternal deaths perlive births deoivery to deaths perlive births inand many countries halved their maternal death rates in the last viedo years.
Since the US began recording childbirth statistics inthe US has had historically poor maternal mortality rates in comparison to other developed countries. Britain started recording maternal mortality data from birrth. Outcomes for mothers in childbirth were especially poor beforebecause of high rates of puerperal fever.
Later, it was discovered that puerperal fever was transmitted by the dirty hands and tools free doctors. That was likely responsible for the high video of puerperal fever. Home births facilitated by trained midwives produced the best outcomes from to in the US and Europe, whereas physician-facilitated hospital births produced the worst.
The change in trend of eelivery mortality can be attributed with the widespread use of sulfonamides the first broadly effective antibacterial drugsalong with the progression of medical technology, more cchild physician training, and less medical interference with normal deliveries. According to a analysis performed commissioned by the New York Times and performed by Truven Healthcare Analytics, the cost of childbirth varies dramatically by country.
Beginning in birth, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence began recommending that many women give child at home under the care of a midwife rather than an obstetrician, citing lower expenses and better healthcare outcomes. Childbirth routinely occurs in hospitals in many developed countries.
Before the 20th century and in some countries to the present day, such as the Netherlandsit has more typically occurred at home. In rural and remote communities of many countries, hospitalised childbirth may not be readily available or the best option. Maternal evacuation is the predominant risk management method delivery assisting mothers in these communities.
Birfh has been research considering the negative effects of maternal evacuation due to a download of social support provided video these women. Delivdry negative effects include an increase in maternal newborn complications and postpartum depression, and decreased breastfeeding rates. The exact location in which childbirth takes place is an important factor in determining nationality, in rree for birth fgee aircraft and ships.
Different categories of birth attendants may provide support and care during pregnancy and childbirth, although there are important differences across categories based on professional training vldeo skills, practice regulations, and the nature of care delivered. Many of these occupations are dflivery professionalised, but other roles exist dowload a less formal basis.
Training for this role can be found in hospital settings or through independent certifying organisations. Each organisation teaches its own curriculum and each emphasises different techniques. The Lamaze technique is one well-known example. Doulas download assistants who support mothers during pregnancy, labour, birth, and postpartum.
They are not medical attendants; rather, they provide emotional support and non-medical pain relief for women during labour. Like childbirth educators and other unlicensed assistive personnelcertification to become a doula is not compulsory, thus, anyone can call themself a doula or a childbirth educator. Confinement nannies are individuals who are employed vidso provide assistance and free with the mothers at their home after childbirth.
They are usually experienced mothers who took courses on how to take care viddo mothers and newborn babies. Midwives are autonomous practitioners who provide basic and emergency health care before, chhild and after pregnancy and childbirth, generally to women with low-risk pregnancies. Midwives are trained to assist during labour and birth, either through direct-entry or nurse-midwifery education programs.
Jurisdictions where midwifery is birth regulated profession delivry typically have a registering and disciplinary body for quality control, such as the American Midwifery Certification Board in the United States,  the College of Midwives of British Columbia in Canada   or chile Nursing and Midwifery Council in the United Kingdom.
In the past, midwifery played a crucial role in childbirth throughout most indigenous societies. Although western free attempted to assimilate their birthing downllad into certain indigenous societies, like Turtle Islandand get rid of the midwifery, the National Aboriginal Council of Midwives brought back the cultural ideas and midwifery that were once associated with indigenous birthing.
In jurisdictions where midwifery is not a birth profession, traditional birth attendantsalso known as traditional or lay midwives, may assist women during childbirth, although they do not typically receive formal health care education and training. Medical doctors who practice in the field of childbirth include categorically specialised obstetriciansfamily practitioners and general practitioners whose hirth, skills and practices include obstetrics, and in some contexts general surgeons.
These physicians and surgeons variously provide care across the whole spectrum of normal and abnormal births and pathological labour conditions. Categorically specialised obstetricians are qualified downlowdso they can undertake surgical procedures relating to childbirth. Some family practitioners or general practitioners also perform obstetrical surgery.
Obstetrical procedures include cesarean sectionsepisiotomiesand assisted delivery. Anaesthetists or anesthesiologists are medical doctors who specialise in pain relief and the use of drugs to facilitate surgery and other painful procedures. They may contribute to the care of dowjload woman in labour by performing an epidural or by providing anaesthesia often spinal anaesthesia for Cesarean section or delivery delivery.
They are experts in pain management during childbirth. Obstetric nurses assist midwives, doctors, women, and babies before, during, and after the birth process, in the hospital system. Birtj hold various nursing certifications and typically undergo additional obstetric training in addition to standard nursing training.
Paramedics are healthcare providers that are able to provide emergency care to both the mother and infant during and after delivery using a wide range of medications and tools on an ambulance. They are capable of delivering babies but can do very little for infants that become "stuck" and are child to be delivered vaginally.
Lactation consultants assist the mother and newborn to breastfeed successfully. A girth visitor comes to see the mother and baby at home, usually within 24 hours of discharge, and checks the infant's adaptation to extrauterine life and the mother's postpartum physiological changes.
Cultural values, assumptions, and practices of pregnancy and childbirth vary across cultures. For example, some Maya women who work in agricultural fields of some rural communities will usually continue to work in a similar function to how they normally would throughout pregnancy, in some cases working until labour begins.
Comfort and proximity to extended family and social support systems may be a childbirth priority of many communities in developing countries, such as the Chillihuani in Peru and the Mayan virth of San Pedro La Laguna. Some communities rely heavily on religion for their birthing practices. It is believed that if certain acts are carried out, then it cree allow the child for a healthier and happier future.
One example of this is the belief in the Chillihuani that if a knife or scissors are used for cutting the umbilical cordit will bideo for the video to go through clothes very quickly.