Basic english pdf free download

03.10.2021 By Nicole Marcos

basic english pdf free download

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  • They also have both a singular and a plural form. Examples include toys, children and books. Examples include sympathy, laughter and oxygen. Forming the Plural of Nouns The English language has regular and irregular plural forms of nouns. NOTE: many of these Latin plurals have been anglicized so that one may also see the forms funguses and antennas.

    The plural nouns data is commonly used as a singular. When in doubt, consult a dictionary or style guide. Like nouns, pronouns have number singular and plural.

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    Cownload nouns, pronouns also have special forms according ldf whether they are used as subjects or objects. Personal Pronoun Subject forms: I, you, he, she, it, we, they. Object forms: me, you, him, her, it, us, them. The possessive pronoun, like the personal pronoun, stands for a noun.

    At the same time it indicates possession. This book is mine. Reflexive Pronoun This special class of pronouns downloda used when the object is the same as the subject of the sentence: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. For example: I managed to cut myself while shaving.

    Interrogative Pronoun Standard forms: what, which, who, whom, whose These pronouns are used to introduce questions: What are the odds? Who left the door open? Which is mine? NOTE: The subject pronoun who has the object form whom. The tendency for many speakers is to avoid whom altogether and use who as pddf subject and object.

    This is no longer viewed as a serious error. Using whom where the subject form is called for, however, is an error to be avoided at all costs. These pronouns are used to stand for a noun and separate it from other entities.

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    For example: Is this the one you wanted? Hand me those. NOTE: Generally speaking, use this and these to indicate items near the speaker, and that and those for items farther away. Notice that demonstrative pronouns replace the noun. Here "this" is pointing out the noun "house. There are many of them, including anyone, anywhere, everyone, none, and someone.

    Examples: Everyone is going to the party. That's not anywhere I'd want to go. Relative Pronoun The relative pronouns are that, who, whom, which, where, when, and why. Like a conjunction, it serves as a joining word between clauses. For example: That's the man who climbed Everest. The word "who" is a relative pronoun. It stands for "man" and it links the main clause "That's the man" to the dependent clause "who climbed Everest.

    There are two main kinds: attributive and predicative. An adjective is used attributively when it stands next to a noun and describes it. For example: The black cat climbed a tree. For example: This soup tastes bad. They include all the forms of to be and sensing verbs like seem, feel, and taste.

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    You can have a whole string of adjectives if you like: The tall thin evil-looking cowboy roped the short, fat, free calf. Sometimes, for rhetorical or poetic effect, the adjective can come after the noun: Sarah Plain and Tall book title This is the forest primeval. Some people even consider articles basic a separate part of speech.

    In function, however, they can be grouped with the demonstrative adjectives that are used to point things out rather than describe them. The is called definite article, while a an is called indefinite article. The definite article is usually used to point out something that has already been introduced. The indefinite article is used to introduce something unspecific, or something being introduced for the first time.

    For example: From the top of the rise we could see a house. As we drew nearer, we could see that the house was a Victorian free. The article a derives from a word meaning "one. An is used before words beginning with a vowel sound: an ape, an image, an untruth, an honorable man. Verb errors can be avoided if one understands the following terms: principal parts, person, transitive, intransitive, tense, voice, and mood.

    Principal Parts of the Verb The writer who knows the three principal parts of the verb is pdf to build any tense. The three principal parts of the verb are: present, past, and past participle. The past participle form is the form used with has or have. That means that they form the simple past and the past participle by adding the -ed ending.

    A few English verbs form the past by changes in spelling. Person Verbs are said to have person. First person is the form of the verb used with the subject pronouns I and we. Second person is the form of the verb used with the subject pronoun you. Third person is the form of the verb used with the subject pronouns he, she, it, and they.

    English verb forms are almost completely uniform. Except for third person present singular, the forms are identical in all persons and tenses. Kinds of Verb English has three kinds of verbs: transitive, intransitive, and incomplete. Transitive Verbs A verb is transitive when the action is carried across to a receiver: The farmer grows basic. The receiver is called the direct object.

    Grows what? Sang what? Intransitive Verbs A verb download intransitive when the action stays with the verb. It is not carried across to a receiver: Corn grows. Elvis sang. NOTE: Adding a prepositional phrase to modify the verb does not change the fact that the action of the verb remains with the subject. For example: Corn grows in the fields.

    Elvis sang all over english world. The phrases "in the fields" and "all over the world" simply add information pdf the verbs. Both transitive and intransitive verbs are action verbs. Incomplete Verbs There are three types of incomplete verbs: i.

    If in doubt, substitute a form of to be for the verb. If the sentence still makes sense, the verb english being used as a copulative verb. For example: He feels depressed. The replacement makes sense. He feels the wall. The replacement is nonsense. It's a transitive action verb. These auxiliary verbs download used to form different tenses, voices, and moods.

    Some of them, like have and do, have other uses as complete verbs. Most of them, like shall and may, do not exist as complete verbs. For example: one can do something, but one cannot may something.

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    Voice English verbs are said to have two voices: active and passive. Active Voice: the subject of the sentence performs the action. For example: His son catches fly balls. Creative children often dream in class. Passive Voice: envlish subject receives the action. Baslc example: The ball was caught by the first baseman.

    The duty is performed by the new recruits. The dough was beaten by the mixer. Only transitive verbs can be used in the passive voice. What would be the direct object of the verb in the active voice, becomes the subject of the verb in the passive voice. Active voice: The dog bit the mailman. A passive verb in either present or past tense will always have two parts: some form of english verb to be am, is, are, was, wereand a past participle verb form ending in -ed, -en, or any form used with have when forming a perfect tense.

    NOTE: The mere presence of the verb to be does not indicate that a verb is in the passive voice. If the subject is receiving the action, then the verb is in passive voice. Sometimes the passive voice is the best way to express a thought. Used carelessly, however, passive voice can produce a ponderous, inexact writing style.

    Mood English verbs have four moods: indicative, imperative, subjunctive, and infinitive. Mood is the form of the verb that shows the mode or manner in which a thought is expressed. Indicative Mood: expresses an assertion, denial, or question: Little Rock is the capital of Arkansas. Ostriches cannot fly. Have you finished your homework? Be careful!

    Subjunctive Mood: expresses doubt or something contrary to fact. Americans are more likely to say: If I see him, I will tell him. Eggplants are purple. Your hands are black! Roses are red. For example, you can say: a tall girl a tall bookcase The word high describes bigger or wider objects that reach a great height.

    They tell you pdf many people, animals, or things there are. Sometimes they are called adjectives of quantity. Do you know what kinds of adjectives they are? In the blanks write C if the underlined words tell you about color, S if they tell you about size, Ql if they tell you about quality, O if they tell you about origin, or Qn if they tell you about the number or quantity of things.

    Lots of comparative adjectives end in -er. For example, you might say: Jack is taller than John. A sports car is faster than a motorbike. Lots of superlatives end in -est. For example, you say: Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the download. Peter is the tallest boy in his class.

    For example: Comparative Superlative close closer closest large larger largest safe safer safest wide wider widest 4 Some adjectives have only one syllable, end with a consonant, and have a single vowel before the consonant. With these adjectives, double the last letter before adding —er to form the comparative, and -est to form the superlative.

    For example: Comparative Superlative big bigger biggest dim dimmer dimmest pdf madder maddest sad sadder saddest 4 Some adjectives have two syllables and end in -y. With these adjectives change the y to i. Then add -er to form doqnload comparative, and -est to form the superlative.

    Comparative Sownload hard cold soft tall rich mad funny big sad busy noisy Exercise basic Fill in the blanks with the correct comparative english superlative forms of doqnload following adjectives. They are special adjectives that are used before nouns.

    The Articles The words a, an and the belong to this group of words called determiners. The words vree and an are called indefinite articles. You can use frer with singular nouns to talk about any single person or thing. Can you hear a bird singing? This is xownload picture of an elephant. Rudy is reading a book. Mom bought me a new dress today. Do you wear a You will need an umbrella when you go out.

    She eats an apple a day. The article a is used before words beginning with consonants. Use the before a noun when you are talking about a certain person or thing. The telephone is ringing. I think she is under the bed. Tom has won the race. Granny is sitting in the garden. The street is very busy today. The sky is getting dark. The ice is melting.

    They are used to tell which thing or person you mean. These words are called demonstrative determiners, or demonstrative adjectives. I am keeping these books. I am selling those books. This ice cream is delicious. How free is that racket?

    What is free animal? James lives in this house. Bring me that ball. Would you like these apples? You use that and those to point to people or things that downlooad farther from you. You use this and that before singular nouns. You use these and those before plural nouns. These words are called interrogative determiners or interrrogative adjectives.

    What bzsic do you wear? What kind of bird is that? What time is it? What color is her hair? What kind of clothes do you like to wear? Which school do you go to? Which doll is your favorite? Which road leads to the zoo? Which runner is the winner? Do you know which girl won the prize?

    Use these words before nouns to say who something belongs to. I lent Margaret my guitar. Is this your house? Robert, your handwriting is difficult to read. The dentist asked Michael is showing his tortoise to his friends. The lion is chasing its prey. Exercise 4 Are the underlined words demonstrative adjectives or demonstrative pronouns?

    Write DA for demonstrative adjectives or DP for demonstrative pronouns in the blanks. Exercise 6 Choose the correct interrogative adjectives from the box to fill in the blanks. They tell you what people, animals or things are doing. Odf sun rises in the east. Uncle Download wears glasses.

    Basic love water. Pdf children go to school by bus. Mary enjoys singing. Peter sometimes lends me his bike. Cows eat grass. Monkeys like bananas. Tom collects stamps. The earth goes around the sun. It often snows in winter. We always wash our hands before meals. We eat three meals a day. Father takes the dog for a walk every morning.

    Basic starts school tomorrow. Next week I go to summer camp. The train departs in five minutes. Download join the senior scout troop in July this year. The new supermarket opens next Friday. Englizh new grammar book comes out in September. Grandad retires next year. We fly to London next Thursday.

    The plane lands at P. We move to our new house in a english. My big sister begins her summer job next week. Thomas teaches free science. Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with the simple present tense of the verbs in parentheses.

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    They are the simple present tense of the verb be. Use engish with the pronoun I, and is with the pronouns he, she and it. Use are with the pronouns you, we and they. It is a donkey. It is not a horse. It is very hot today. It is not very comfortable. I am not Paul. She is Miss Lee. She is a teacher. He is my father. He is a doctor. He is not a lawyer.

    You are a stranger. You are not my friend. We are in the same class, but we are not on the same team. They are good friends. They are not enemies. The camel is a desert animal. Vegetables and fruit are healthy foods.

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    Lambs are baby sheep. Rex is a clever dog. A duck is a kind of bird. The playground is full of people today. My house is near the school. These questions are too difficult. The balloons are very colorful. Those people are very busy. Dad and Mom are in the kitchen. There is a castle on the hill.

    There is a fence around the school. There are a lot of books in the library. There are two guards at the gate. Is there any food in the fridge? Are there any apples left on the tree? How much rice is there? There are a few sharks in the bay. There are two pigeons on the roof.

    Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with is or are. To talk about actions in the present, or things that are still going on or happening now. I am writing a letter.

    Mom is knitting a sweater for Sally. The phone is ringing. They are practicing tai chi. They are still sleeping. They are swimming in the sea. What are they doing? They all end with a consonant such as b, d, g, m, p, t and have only one vowel before the consonant. To form the present progressive tense, use am, is and are as helping verbs or auxiliary verbs.

    When are you taking We are having a barbecue me to the zoo? We are going camping tomorrow. My favorite TV program is starting in a minute. All our friends are coming. I am visiting Joe next week. Where are you going for your vacation? What are we eating for download They are also used to talk about things that english do or get, such as illnesses.

    These words are the simple present tense of the verb have. Peter has a sore knee. We have breakfast at A. He has a lot of stamps. She has long hair. Our house has large windows. I have a younger brother. Monkeys have We have art lessons on Mondays. Have a cookie, if you like. Dad has a cold. Jenny often has sandwiches for lunch.

    Use have with I, you, we, they, and with plural nouns. Exercise 2 Fill in free blanks with have or has. Sam has scored two goals. Uncle Tom has lost his wallet. John has gone out. The Lees have moved to Ohio. Have you found your keys yet? Tim has made two spelling mistakes. They have opened a new shop.

    The simple past tense is pdf used to talk about things that happened in stories. Dinosaurs lived millions of years ago. I bought a new camera last week. Joe learned to play the guitar very quickly. We drove to the safari park last weekend. The giant panda gave birth to a cub last night.

    Yesterday Dad took me to the carnival. The basic landed a few minutes ago. The children visited a farm during the holidays. Who invented the computer?

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    Jack and Jill went up the hill. Little Red Riding Hood decided to visit her grandmother. The Three Bears pdff Goldilocks asleep in their house. These verbs are called regular verbs. Spelling File Base Form Simple Past aim aimed bake baked open opened happen happened Who closed all pull pulled the windows?

    Mom opened the door for us.

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    Sally petted the dog. That event happened long ago. We visited our uncle last week. They walked to school together yesterday. They worked until twelve last night. Freee tried to fix the light. They all end with a consonant such as b, d, m, n, p, t, and have only a single vowel before the consonant.

    Such verbs are called irregular verbs. The simple past tense of some irregular verbs does not change at all. David hurt his foot when he The worker cut down the jumped over the basic. I lost my pen on the bus. We sold our car last week. The baby slept right thought the night. Peter got a watch for english birthday.

    I heard a noise in the night. He brought his pet mouse to school. A bird flew into My book fell off the pdf. Was is download simple past tense of am and is. Use was with the free Wnglish, he, pff and it, and with free nouns. Edison was a Beethoven was a German composer.

    Sue was at the library this morning. It was very wet on Monday. Ten years ago she was only a baby. He was not well yesterday. Were is the simple past tense of are. Use were with the pronouns you, we and they, and with plural nouns. These were my best jeans. The Romans were brave soldiers. They were third in the wheelbarrow race.

    Were you still in bed when I phoned? We were on pdf same school team. Those dpf my best jeans. Miss May was cleaning the chalkboard. Sally was packing her books into her schoolbag. Jenny and I were tidying the classroom. The twins were fighting in the corner. Michael download John were washing Mary englishh waiting for the the paint brushes.

    Mom was cooking our supper when I came home. They help to form the past progressive tense when you join them to the present participle the form of verbs ending in -ing. For example: Ben was doing his homework. Exercise 2 When Miss May walked into the class what were the children doing? Fill in the blanks with the correct past progressive tense of the verbs in brackets.

    Use the verbs shall and will as english verbs or auxiliary verbs to form the future tense. I downlkad be eight years old next year. The weatherman They will finish the job says it will rain next week. We shall play a game of chess after lunch. You will be sick if you eat too much. Sharon is dnglish. She will not be at the party.

    You will enjoy visiting New Zealand. Dad will be back for dinner. He will make rownload of dnglish at his new school. Use basic with you, he, she, it and they. You can use going to. We are going to xownload a cake this afternoon. When are you going to clean your room? It is going to get dark very soon. You can also use the simple present tense to talk about things that have been arranged for the future.

    The new supermarket opens tomorrow. The bus ffree in James moves to the second ten minutes.

    The new school year starts on Monday. Next month I go to summer camp. We have a history test next week. Can and could are used with the pronouns I, you, he, she, it, we and they, and with singular or plural nouns. Could is the past emglish of can. He can run faster than Arthur.

    She cannot afford such an expensive ring. Jack ran as far Can you help me?

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    Can I come with you? I knew you could do it if you tried. She could not come because she was ill. Miss Lee said we could go home early. Dumpty together again. For example: Can I use your pen? Yes, here it is. May I borrow your pen? May I watch television now? You may come in. Yes, you may. You may go now.

    If it continues to rain, there may be a flood. It may rain. He realized he might catch the earlier train if he hurried. I knew my fre might find out. For example: Put your purse away or it might get stolen. You might slip, so hold on to the railing. Use do with the pronouns I, you, we and they, and with bsaic nouns.

    Use does with the pronouns he, she and it, and singular nouns. Did is the simple past tense of do and does. Dad does Mom does the dishes. We always He does such interesting work. They do amazing tricks. Sally did her hair in front of the mirror.

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    They did download dusting and cleaning. Jane did all the laundry by herself. You did well in basic test. Who did this drawing? Henry did. I did poorly on my exam. Where did you find Do ducks like water? Yes, they do. Do you like ice cream? Yes, I sownload. Does it rain often here?

    Yes, it does. Does downloav enjoy music? Yes, he does. Did it snow last night? Who wants to come with me to the zoo? We englissh do! What do you want for lunch? Who broke this vase? Peter did! Does Ken often come home late? Why ppdf he leave so suddenly? Does everyone have a dictionary? The baby does not look very happy.

    Dad did not catch his train. Cats do not like water. Did you see the rainbow? Do not forget to switch off the air conditioner. English would as the past tense of will. Peter said he would come. I knew you would enjoy Disneyland. The Prince said he would only marry a true princess.

    John and Sue said they would meet me at the airport. For example: Would you like a cup of english I am tired now. What basif would you like? For example: Would you like a chocolate? Yes, please, I would love one. Use should to talk about necessary actions or things that people ought to do. Children should not Ffee should always look play in traffic.

    If you are tired you should go to bed early. You should know how to spell your own name. We should all drink more water. You should do more exercise. Pdf the subject is a singular noun, or the basic he, she or it, you need a singular verb.

    She enjoys music. She shares her books with her friends. The zookeeper is feeding the animals. The children are playing on the swings. The earth moves round the sun. Dad emglish drives to work. The clerk is wrapping a package. It is snowing. Does everyone know the answer? Mom has bought a dress for Sara. The two girls always All birds lay eggs.

    The children are playing on the swing. The stars shine brightly on a clear night. Mom and Dad dosnload us a lot. Do you all know the pdf We have finished our game of tennis. They have both worked very hard. If the group members are all acting together downolad one, use a singular verb.

    If the members of the download are acting as individuals, use a plural verb. The audience are laughing. The band is playing. Singular That family has moved downloa Texas. The team is coached by Englosh. Plural The family were giving their opinions.

    The team are sharing new ideas. Our team has won. Always use a plural verb with these nouns. For example: People like to be praised. The cattle are in the field. The police have caught the thief. Use the correct form of the simple present tense of the verbs in parentheses. Free tells you about an action, or the way something is done.

    A lot of adverbs end in -ly. The baby free sleeping soundly. They laughed loudly. The dog is barking fiercely. Spelling File Alice skated beautifully. Adjective Adverb The Prince and the Princess beautiful beautifully lived happily ever after. They are called adverbs of manner. The driver braked suddenly.

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    The parcel arrived safely. The downlooad jumped up playfully. Please write legibly. Spelling File Please speak clearly. Adjective Adverb Look closely at these footprints. They are called adverbs of time. Can I do my work later? Paul has just arrived.

    No, do it now. He often swims in the evening. Lisa is always cheerful. Sometimes I ride my bike to school. Everyone arrived early. David arrived late. The mother bird started to build her nest yesterday. She is continuing to build it today. She will finish it tomorrow. They fit him this year. They will be too small for him next year.

    It rained last night. The weather is fine this morning. They are called adverbs of place. Mom and Dad are watching television upstairs. The children are playing downstairs. Rex, you can stay outside. Please put the books there. The workers are moving the rubbish away.