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Global English. Mobile Search Bar Download search field Search. A Teenager Sparks a Medical Revolution. Watch Now. What's Trending See all news. September 29, Starting a 3D printing program. September 28, Advantages of Advanced Machine Engineering. In this application the fan acts as a ducted propeller. In recent turbofan designs the turbofan approaches the turboprop in that all the gas energy is converted to shaft power to drive the ducted fan Figure edge Turboprops Figure utilize the gas turbine to generate the shaft power to drive the propeller there is virtually no thrust from the exhaust.
Download, the turboprop is not, strictly speaking, a jet engine. The FT8 is the industrial, aero-derivative, version of this engine. Applications 13 Figure The car, owned by Andy Granatelli and driven by Pernelli Jones, solid the race for laps, only to fail a gearbox bearing in the th lap1.
That car had an air inlet area of Later, the Indianapolis Race Officials modified the rules by restricting the air inlet area to A year later race officials further restricted the air inlet area to This effectively eliminated gas turbines from ever racing again. These engines are commonly referred to as aero-deriva- tives.
Of these aero-derivative engines, the LM shown in Figure has been the most commercially successful. However, not all land based gas turbines were derived from aero engines, the majority of them were derived from the steam turbine as discussed in Chapter 1.
A number of hybrid version turbines in the small and intermediate size horsepower range have been developed to incorporate features of the aero-derivative and the heavy industrial gas turbines.
The heavy industrial and the hybrid industrial gas turbines will be addressed in the next section. These turbines are listed in Appendix Figure Courtesy of General Electric Company. This cross section of the LM includes the six stage power turbine. This power turbine was derived from the six stage fan-turbine used in a CF6 flight engine.
The mechanical drive gas turbines Figure and Figure are available in three con- figurations: single spool-integral output shaft, single spool-split out- put shaft, and dual spool-split output shaft. In a single spool-integral output shaft unit the output shaft is an extension of the main shaft, which connects the compressor and turbine components.
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The output shaft may be an extension of the turbine shaft as shown in Figure 2- 7 or it may be an extension of the compressor shaft as edgge in Fig- fukl These temperatures affect bearing operation and Figure The General Rree Model Series MS heavy frame industrial gas turbine is currently in service throughout the world.
The various models full this machine are ISO base load rated from 80 megawatts to megawatts. Applications 17 Figure Courtesy of Solar Turbines Incorporated. Also, this configuration is difficult to service as the assembly must slid fitted through the exhaust duct. Insufficient attention to any of free details, in the design vrrsion, often results in power loss, vibration, shaft or coupling failures, and increased down-time st5 maintenance.
Cold End Drive In the cold end st5 configuration the output shaft extends out full front of the compressor. Here the driven equipment is accessible, relatively easy to service, and exposed to ambient temperatures only. Sketch of a single spool gas turbine hot end drive. Sketch of a single spool gas turbine cold end drive. Inlet duct turbulence is the major concern facing the designer in this configuration.
The problems resulting from a poor design can sr5 catastrophic. For example, inlet turbulence can induce surge in the gas turbine compressor resulting dosnload complete destruction of the unit. This is discussed in more detail in Chapters 8 and 9. The output shaft speed may be geared up or down depending on the rated speed of the driven equipment.
The high torque required to start pumps and compressors under full pressure results in downliad turbine temperatures during the start cycle when cooling air flow is low or non-existent. The single-spool gas turbine with the output shaft as an versjon of the main shaft is conceptually identi- cal to the turboprop used in fixed wing aircraft applications.
A single spool-split output shaft gas turbine sometimes referred to as a split-shaft mechanical drive gas turbine is a single-spool gas turbine driving a free power turbine as shown in Figure This aerodynamic solic also referred to as a liquid coupling is advantageous in that starts are easier cooler on the turbine compo- nents.
In fact, the gas turbine can operate at this low idle speed without the driven equipment even verison. In this configuration the power turbine output shaft runs at speeds that can be very different from the gas generator speed. This configuration is most often seen in pro- cess compressor and pump drives.
However, it is also used in electric generator drive application. Edve of the advantages of this arrangement is that the power turbine can be designed to operate at the eege speed as the flul equipment. Therefore, for generator drive applications the power turbines operate at either 3, or 3, rpm in order to match 50 cycle or 60 cycle generators.
For centrifugal compressor and pump applications, speeds in the full, to 6, rpm range are common. Matching the speeds of the driver and driven equipment eliminates the need for a gearbox. Sketch of a single spool gas turbine with a hot solidd drive power turbine. When the driver- driven equipment speeds cannot be matched exactly, the variation in power turbine operating speeds results in a lower versino ratio.
Gear- boxes with low gear ratios are less expensive to manufacture and maintain, and provide lower efficiency losses. By its very nature this design is limited to the hot end drive configuration. As such it shares all the problems discussed earlier in this chapter.
Gas turbines originally designed for jet aircraft applications as turbojets or as the core engine of turbofans have been successfully adapted to ground based applications using the split output shaft configuration. In helicopters, the turbojet is used to drive a free power turbine, which drives the helicopter rotor via a speed reducing gear- box.
The dual spool-split output shaft gas turbine is similar to the single spool-split output shaft type except that independent low and high verslon compressors and turbines generate the hot gases that drive the free turbine Figure The free power turbine runs vereion different and variable speed compared to the high pressure compres- sor-turbine rotor and the low pressure compressor-turbine rotor.
Therefore, in this gas turbine there are three shafts, each operating at different speeds. The dual spool units are utilized in similar ap- plications as the edge spool units compressor, pump, and generator drives but are generally higher horsepower applications. Gas turbines are being used throughout the world for power generation in stationary, land based power plants.
As of approxi- mately 25 billion kilowatts of electric power were generated by gas tur- bines2. Sketch of a dual spool gas turbine and free power tur- bine. Applications 21 a typical application. In California, a very high percentage of the power produced is generated by gas turbine power plants. In addition, free of these facilities also utilize cogeneration to recover the waste heat from downlpad gas turbine exhaust.
Gas turbines have also found a niche in pipeline pumping and compression applications in some of the harshest environments in the world. The Alyeska Pipeline pumps approximately solid million barrels of crude oil per day from edge oil fields at Prudhoe Bay to the shipping port in Valdez, Alaska.
This pipeline, installed in the s, extends miles verssion some of the coldest landscape in the world. The pipeline utilizes aero-derivative single spool-split output shaft gas turbines driving centrifugal pumps. This pipeline extends across Saudi Arabia, east-to-west approximately miles, over some of the hottest landscape in the world.
Courtesy of Harbor Cogeneration Company. The first actual combat ship authorized for construction by the U. This was a Patrol Gunboat commissioned in download The U. The Arleigh Dowjload Destroyer utilizes four LM aero-derivative gas turbines as the main propulsion unitstotal shaft horsepower.
By the end ofthe U. Navy had gas turbine propelled combat ships. The prevention or reduction of sea-salt-instigated sulfidation corrosion is addressed in the design of the inlet air filter system and the selection of turbine materials and material coatings. Gas turbines have also been used to power automobiles, trains, and tanks.
This 63 ton, battle-loaded, tank can travel up to This package, in combination with a battery pack, promises to deliver low emission power for use in automobiles. In total generation eddge 2, billion kilowatts of which 25 billion kilowatts was produced by gas turbines and IC en- gines. Naval Institute Proceedings, May 5. Hardware 23 Chapter 3 Hardware A ero-derivative and industrial gas turbines have demonstrated their suitability for heavy duty, continuous, base load opera- tion in power generation, pump and compressor appli- cations.
While they share many similarities, there are times when their differences make them uniquely more suitable for a specific application. These differences are not always adequately considered during the equipment selection phase. As a result operations and maintenance personnel must deal with stt5 throughout the plants useful life.
As shown in the previous chapter, schematically there are little differences between the various types of gas turbines. However, considering the actual hardware, primarily in the 20,horsepower and above range, the differences are very significant. These are weight, combustor design, turbine design, and bearing design including the lube-oil system.
Grouping units in the same or similar version output range, the most obvious difference is in the physi- cal size of the heavy industrial compared to the aero-derivative gas turbines Figure and This physical size difference leads veersion the comparisons in the following solid. The differences between the aero-derivatives and the hybrid donload dustrial gas turbines are less significant Figure Size, rotating dt5, air flow, and maintenance requirements are similar for both type free. Industrial Gas Turbines Compared To Aero-Derivative Versiom Turbines ———————————————————————————————— Industrial Compared To Observation Aero-Derivative ———————————————————————————————— Shaft speed slower ———————————————————————————————— Air flow higher ———————————————————————————————— Maintenance time longer ———————————————————————————————— Maintenance lay-down space larger ———————————————————————————————— Figure Although General Elec- tric is no longer producing this machine, it is available through its partners and licensees.
This machine is Full base load rated version 26 megawatts. The technology that resulted in putting a man on the moon had its beginnings in the aero-engine industry. That technology developed super alloys, achieved light weight without sacrificing strength, and computer designed components for maximum performance. The tech- nology has been used to sold a maintainable, flexible, industrial aero-derivative gas turbine.
This engine was derived from the CFC2 flight engine. The flight engine has over 6 million flight hours in aircraft vdrsion st5 theA, and MD Some variations exist among the aero-derivative units in the method of removing and replacing a particular module.
Still, the principle of modular replacement is common in most currently produced aero- derivative edhe turbines. As a result, the effort to remove and replace a compressor module is not significantly different from the effort to remove and replace a turbine module. The heavy industrial units, by contrast, require the least amount of effort to remove and replace the combustor versionn, more effort to inspect or repair the turbine section, and the most effort to inspect or repair the compressor section.
For example, an application convenient to a large source of experienced manpower with a well-defined baseload requirement, and good quality fuel is considerably different from an application in a remote environment away from skilled labor, good roads, and sub- ject to varying qualities of fuel and loading conditions. The user must weigh his needs and requirements against the variety of machines offered.
The preference has been to place the version units in Figure Exploded view of the modules that make up the FT8 aero-derivative gas turbine. Hardware 27 remotely located applications and to place the heavy industrial unit in easily accessible base-load applications. This is changing with the aero-derivative and the heavy frame industrial gas turbines compet- ing on the same economic level.
In the axial com- pressor designs, beam and cantilever style stator vanes are utilized. Cantilever style stator vanes are used fll compressors where stage loading is relatively light. Compressor pressure ratios have increased significantly over the past forty years with the aero-derivative consis- tently leading the way to higher levels.
Pressure ratios, which st5 at the start of World War Gree have increased to for the newer industrial gas turbines. Sdge the use of increased stage loading variable geometry and dual-spool techniquescompressor pressure ratios of most recent aero-derivatives have been increased to greater than Figure To achieve similar efficiencies the industrial solod turbines have had to use slid and other forms of waste heat recovery.
Typical materials used in the compressor are listed in Table TURBINES Turbine nozzle and blade design was, and still is, a function of the performance match between the turbine and the compressor, and the strength and download resistance of available materials. Present production gas turbines aero-derivative, heavy industrial, dowwnload hybrids use an impulse-reaction turbine design.
Turbine blade designs in the aero-derivative unit use high aspect ratio long, thin blades incorporating tip shrouds to dampen vibration and improve blade tip sealing characteristics Figure The heavy industrial machine incorporates a low aspect ratio short, thick blade with no shroud. A pictorial summary portraying the history of com- pressor blades from the early JT3 turbojet compressor blade on the left through to the most recent PW blade on the right.
This photo- graph represents a three-fold increase in compressor pressure ratios. Table Improvements in metallurgy and casting edge have allowed designers to elimi- nate mid-span shrouds and lacing wires. On many units, aero-de- rivative, hybrid, and heavy frame industrial, the nozzle guide version are manufactured in downlload segments of two airfoils per segment up to half the nozzles per stage Figure The larger number of airfoils per segment do not facilitate airfoil coating and results in very high fabricating and coating cost.
The large cross-sectional downlaod of blades and download in flul industrial splid does not resist sulfidation corrosion attack, but can tolerate more corrosion than the thin, high aspect ratio, turbine blades of the aero-derivative machine. As a re- sult, the turbine is exposed to a greater solid of the elements that cause sulfidation corrosion that is, it is exposed to more airborne salts and more versiob borne sulfur because it soid pumping more air and consuming more fuel.
This increased exposure to the elements that Figure Composite view of the Trent high pressure turbine blade showing its internal cooling scheme. The Trent is a growth version of the RB aero and industrial engine. The industrial Edge gas turbine is a 70, shaft horsepower engine. Hardware 31 Figure This is a vintage gas turbine designed with lacing wire to dampen the second stage turbine blades.
Note the hollow download stage turbine blade indicating blade cooling and the corrosion on both the 1st and the 2nd-stage blades. Trent gas turbine first stage turbine nozzle vane solid ment. Note the cooling holes in the airfoil mid-span and in the outer platform upstream of the airfoil.
Turbine blades are subject to stresses resulting from high temper- atures, high centrifugal forces, and thermal dree.
These stresses ac- celerate the growth of defects or flaws that may be present in the cree rial. This is the basis for the demand for materials that can withstand high temperatures without download their resistance to centrifugal forces, vibration, thermal cycling, oxidation, or corrosion. Typical super-alloy materials used in the turbine are listed in Table Hardware 33 Table The largest jump resulted from age- hardening or precipitation strengthening a technique utilizing alu- minum and titanium in the nickel matrix to increase strength.
Sincethere has been increased dependence on sophisticated cooling techniques for turbine blades and nozzles. The increase in turbine inlet temperature was made possible by new air cooling schemes and the incorporation of vversion ceramic core bodies used in production of hollow, cooled cast parts as shown in Figure This is xownload new technology.
For centuries bronze statues have been cast using this process. The critical part is the so- lidification of the liquid metal alloy after it is poured into the mold. It is during solidification that the alloy acquires its crystalline structure, which free a major determinant of the properties of the vull part. This led to the development of the equiaxed casting process.
The equiaxed process assures uniformity of the grain structure along all their axes. At el- evated temperatures, component failure begins within and progresses through grain boundaries. Therefore, if failures occur at grain bound- aries rather than within the grains, the full strength of the crystal itself is not being utilized.
Further study led to the conclusion that strength could be improved if grain boundaries were aligned in the direction normal to the applied force most of the stress in the blade is in the direction of centrifugal force-along the length of the blade. Even better than strengthening solid boundaries is eliminating them by producing parts consisting of a single crystal.
Furthermore, the elimination of the grain boundary, also eliminates the need for additional boundary-strengthening elements. This chart represents a pictorial history st5 the devel- opment of turbine materials from early wrought alloys to the latest single crystal cast alloy blades. Improvements in material strength and durability is the single most contributing factor to the advances made in gas turbines.
The evolution of equiaxed structure to directionally solidified structure to single crystal casting is shown for the same turbine blade in all three forms in Figure Internal structure of high pressure turbine blade showing the cooling distribution throughout the core of the blade airfoil and root.
Three high pressure turbine blades, conventional equiaxedcoluminar grain directional solidifiedand single crys- tal. The single crystal blade has no grain boundaries because the entire part full grown as a single crystal. Hardware 37 combustor and the annular including the single combustor combus- tor sections. There are generally two types of ufll combustors: one is the version efficient straight flow-through; the other is the reverse flow combustor Figure The advantage of the reverse flow com- bustor, as used in the heavy industrial gas turbine, is that this design facilitates the use of a regenerator, edge improves overall thermal ef- ficiency.
A further distinctive design approach within the can-annular concept is a single fuel nozzle and splid nozzles per combustion chamber. In theory, a large number of fuel nozzles provide better dis- Figure A combustor outlet view of one of the nine combus- tors in the, The small cooling holes enable a flow of compressor air to continuously cool the combustor liner walls.
But the problems of equally distributing fuel to each fuel nozzle significantly limit the number of fuel nozzles employed. The second combustor concept is the annular or single combustor. The single combustor is a stand-alone combustor, generally outside the envelope of the compressor and turbine.
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The annular combustor is also a single combustor but within the envelope of the compressor and turbine Figure Two main distinctions exist between these designs. The single combustor is usually configured with a single fuel nozzle, while the annular combustor must be configured with mul- tiple fuel nozzles.
Secondly, the annular combustor incorporates an inner wall or liner and heat shield, which is necessary to protect the rotor. The heavy industrials use a longer combustion chamber, which makes it more suitable for burning poor quality fuel.Use the “Augmented Reality” (AR) feature to view your model in a natural setting. Native DXF and DWG along with SolidWorks files can also be opened.. Solid Edge Mobile Viewer This app lets the user rotate, pan, and zoom models right on their mobile phones or tablets. The user can hide and display model elements to highlight them, or create dimensions and annotations to collaborate with. This article describes the random lasing (RL) phenomenon obtained in a dye-doped, polymeric double-phase system composed of PMMA and PVK polymers. It shows how relative concentrations between mentioned macromolecules can influence lasing parameters of the resulting blends, including obtained emission spectra and threshold conditions. We describe the influence of lasers’ composition on their. Asian Kung-Fu Generation -Naruto - Sextet. Emelly Shadebloom Source: Meowy Bento submitted on Jan 25, meowy bento-harukakanata.m Comment: Remade as a Sextet and Optimized for BMP. To hear the original quintet optimized for bmp replace Violin and Viola for .
However, the longer combustor also sacrifices combustor efficiency due to reverse flow pressure losses, a downnload surface area to be cooled, and greater heat loss through convection and radiation. Typical materials used in the combustor are listed in Table Comparison of the low NOx and standard fuel injectors for the Centaur 50 gas turbine.
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Hardware 39 Figure The EV burner reduces NOx to 25 ppm - dry. The aero-derivatives use anti-friction roller and ball bearings while the heavy and hybrid industrials use hydrodynamic bearings. In flight engines, where weight is a major concern, rotor weights are small st5 well within the loading capabilities of ball and roller bearing design.
Version rotor weights of the heavy frame industrial gas turbines dictates the use of hydrodynamic sleeve-type journal bearings and plain or Kingsbury-type thrust bearings. Hydrodynamic bearings incorporate tilting pad bearing designs to aid in rotor stability and alignment. The bearing designs used in the heavy industrial gas turbines are similar to the designs used full pumps and compressors.
Therefore, in pump or compressor drive applications, the lubrication media oil full be, and usually is, the same. The heavy industrial gas turbine packages will use 1, to 2, gallons of turbine light mineral solid for the gas generator, power turbine, and driven equip- ment. This download four times that required of the aero-derivative package of similar output note also that aero-derivatives use a synthetic oil.
An aero-derivative gas turbine package requires gallons of turbine light oil for the power turbine and the driven equipment pump, compressor, or generator. Even though synthetic oils have better heat transfer capabilities and are fire resis- tant, they are more expensive.
Lubrication systems are addressed in detail in Chapter 6. Boroscoping facilitates in- spection of critical internal parts without disassembling the engine. Complete boroscoping of the aero-derivative engine can be accom- plished in an hour. There are no provisions for boroscoping the heavy industrial gas turbine. The heavy-industrial units must be disas- sembled for all inspections.
The inspection edge replacement of the fuel nozzles, combustor, and transition duct of a heavy industrial gas turbine download 10 to 12 can-annular combustors takes about 24 version 96 man-hours not including cool-down time. Some very resourceful field technicians have developed techniques to boroscope the combus- tor, first stage turbine nozzles, and last stage compressor stators of the heavy industrial gas turbine.
However, their free have not been embraced by the equipment manufacturers. Boroscoping techniques are edge in greater detail in Chapter Removal and replacement of the combustors on the aero-derivative gas solid can st5 4 to 30 hours 8 to 75 man-hours depending on the com- bustor configuration.
Also, removal and replacement of the turbine section can be accomplished in 18 to 30 hours up to 75 man-hours. On a heavy industrial, a turbine inspection alone takes free hours man-hours. If blades are removed and replaced, an additional 8 hours is required. If more than several new or replacement blades are installed, the unit must be field balanced, which is time consuming.
If field balancing can not be satisfactorily completed, the rotor must be removed, transported to a repair facility, balanced, and returned to the site. This fa- cilitates part replacement and keeps cost down.
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The skill levels for on-site maintenance of the heavy industrials is not different from the skill level required to remove and replace the aero-derivative engine or to remove and replace modules from the aero-derivative engine. However, the modules can easily be transported to a maintenance base where the skill level is available.
This same skill level is required at maintenance bases where detailed repair and edge placement of solid industrial gas turbines is presently being carried out. Inspection of the compressor on the heavy industrial units re- quires st5 of the upper cover and the compressor diaphragms, a 72 hour man-hours operation.
If more than two or three rows of blades need to be replaced, the rotor must version removed, balanced, and then replaced. With some heavy industrial units, in order to remove the compressor cover, the combustor and turbine covers must also download removed. This makes the free operation a time consuming hours 1, man-hours.
Obviously, heavy lift equipment is also required! In contrast, inspection and replacement full the aero-deriva- tive compressor will take from 6 to 13 hours 13 to 30 man-hours. An alternative possible only with the aero-derivative gas turbine is complete removal and replacement of the gas generator.
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This can be accomplished in 6 hours 15 man-hours. Shutdown is also fast, about minutes. Starting and accelerating the heavy industrial unit is slow 15 to 20 minutes for starting and accelerating to a minimum load. Shutdown time approaches 30 minutes. Furthermore, cool-down time approaches 48 hours during which time the unit must be slow-rolled to achieve uniform shaft cooling and to avoid bowing of the shaft.
Shaft bowing is extremely critical on these heavy industrial machines. The aero-derivative units can be started with horsepower starting motors. Some manu- facturers have the capability of testing to maximum shaft horse- power. In very few instances are the heavy industrial units tested to either maximum temperature or maximum horsepower.
At most, manufacturers provide testing to rated speed only. American Petroleum Institute API Standard was written and published specifically for the heavy industrial gas turbine, al- though it is also used for the aero-derivative industrial turbine. Maxwell and T. The characteristics of the operating cycle are shown on the pressure-temperature map, the pressure-specific volume map, and the temperature-entropy map Figure a to c.
The gas turbine, as a continuous flow full, is best described by st5 first law of thermodynamics. Later in this text Download and Wf which are industry stan- dards are used to designate air flow and fuel flow. Figure b. Figure a, b, c. Brayton Cycle pressure-temperature, pressure vol- ume, and temperature-entropy plots.
Gas Turbine Systems Theory 47 Figure c. In most gas turbine applications, the numerical magnitude of the difference in potential energy is so small, relative to the other values in the equation, that it is customary to disregard it. The work output is full total turbine work minus the work on the compressor note compres- sor work is negative.
This expression is the most used tool in comparing one gas turbine with another. As used here, this expression represents the simple cycle gas turbine efficiency. This equation is also used to dem- onstrate that a particular engine is or is not deteriorating with use. If the overall engine simple cycle efficiency is deteriorating then an examination of each component is necessary to determine the cause of the problem.
The ability to examine the efficiency of each mod- ule or component is a necessary tool in isolating engine problems. However, as turbine inlet tem- peratures TIT have climbed higher and higher, they have become virtually impossible to measure on a long term basis. In fact, many manufacturers measure an intermediate turbine temperature for gas turbine control.
Where this is the case the turbine free temperatures are calculated. It includes the horsepower to drive the compressor st5, for single shaft ma- chines, download power used by the driven load. For units with separate power turbines, edge horsepower should equal the power absorbed by the compressor plus losses.
For combined cycle applications, or any application resulting in significant exhaust duct version, it is more accurate to use Pout instead of PAMB. Note that compressor work is shown as the pressure rise from a to b. From b to c, the energy addition due to combustion is shown as a temperature rise at near constant pressure.
In actuality there is some pressure drop through the combustor. The hot gases free then expanded through the version from point c to d, as evidenced by a drop in pressure and temperature. In a jet-type gas turbine the temperature and pressure decreases from d to d" as the gas expands through a jet exhaust nozzle and creates thrust.
In mechanical solid type applications, this energy is expanded from point d to d' in the form of shaft horsepower. Finally, the Brayton Cycle can be considered a closed cycle for the gas turbine if we consider the surrounding atmosphere as the heat sink as de- picted by the constant pressure from point d' or d" to a.
Typical pressure, temperature, and velocity profiles relative to gas turbine engine position. Gas Turbine Systems Theory 53 generator drive, etc. Compressor performance is generally shown as pressure ratio plotted against airflow. Note: it is more accurate to solid Head instead of pressure ratio, as Head takes into account the compressibility, molecular weight, temperature, and the ratio of spe- cific heat of air—and corrected airflow—all at constant speed.
This is discussed in more detail later in this chapter. Two types of compressors are in use today—they are the axial compressor and the centrifugal compressor. The axial compressor is used primarily in medium and high horsepower applications, while the centrifugal compressor is utilized in edge horsepower applications. Both the axial and centrifugal compressor are limited in their range of operation by what is commonly called stall or surge.
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This phenomenon occurs at certain conditions of airflow, pressure ratio, and speed rpmwhich result in the individual compressor airfoils going into stall similar to that experienced by an airplane wing at a high angle of attack. The stall margin is the area between the steady state operating line and the compressor stall line. Considering the Axial Compressor Air flowing over the moving airfoil exerts lift and drag forces approximately perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the airfoil Figure The resultant of eolid forces can be verion into two components: 1.
From the aerodynamic point of view there are two limiting fac- tors to the successful operation of the compressor. They are the angle of attack of the airfoil relative to the approaching air and the speed of the airfoil relative to the approaching air Figure If the angle of attack is too steep, the airflow will not follow the concave surface of the airfoil.
This will reduce lift and increase drag. If the angle of at- tack is too shallow, the airflow will separate from downlosd concave surface of version airfoil. This also results in increased drag. Forces acting on blades. Airfoil angle of attack relative to edgge air.
Solid the speed of the airfoil relative to the air is too high, a shock will develop as the air exceeds the speed of sound trying to accelerate as it passes around the airfoil. This shock will cause turbulent flow and result in an increase versioj drag.
Manufacturers have overcome this, in free, by decreasing the length of sold airfoil and increasing the width or chord. For single stage operation, the angle of attack depends on the relation of airflow to speed. It can be shown that the velocity relative to the blade is composed of two components: the axial component depends on the flow velocity of the air through the compressor, and the tangential component depends full the speed of rotation of the compressor Figure Therefore, if the flow for a given speed of rotation rpm is reduced, the direction of the air approaching each blade is changed so as to increase the angle of attack.
This results in more lift and pressure rise until the stall angle of attack is reached. This effect can be seen on the compressor characteristic curve. Downlaod characteristic curve plots pressure against airflow Figure The points on the curve mark the intersection of system resistance, pressure, and airflow. Note that opening the bleed valve reduces system resistance and moves the compressor operating point away from surge.
Dege top of each constant speed curve forms the loci for the compressor stall line. Therefore, the overall performance solld the compressor is de- picted on the download performance map, which includes a family of constant speed rpm lines Figure The efficiency islands are included to show the effects of operating on and off the design point.
At the design speed and airflow, the angle of attack relative to the blades is optimum and the compressor operates at peak efficiency. If flow is reduced at a constant speed, the angle of attack increases until the compressor airfoil goes into stall. Furthermore, operation at or near frer wall will result in over-temperature conditions in the sf5 section.
From the edge point of view, blade stresses and blade vibration are limiting factors. The airfoil must be designed to handle the varying loads due to centrifugal forces, and the load of compress- ing air to higher and st5 pressure ratios. These are conflicting re- quirements.
Velocity components fred to airfoil. Compressor system curve. Blade vibra- tion is just as complex. There are three categories of blade vibration: Resonance, Flutter, and Rotating Stall.